- Hypertext references can be underlined.
- No academic titles are included.
- A missing date is processed as follows: n.d. (no date).
- A date specifying when exactly content was accessed is only necessary if the content is permanently updated.
- Hypertext references are not followed by a full-stop.
- DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is supposed to be included if it is available.
- Personal communications (mentioned in the text) are not included.
- Only a publishing house’s name is specified, not the town/city where the company is located.
- If a reference originally starts with a number, e.g., 10 Marketing Trends and Predictions for 2023, it is re-written in References as follows: Ten Marketing Trends and Predictions for 2023.
- References are sorted alphabetically according to the surnames of the first authors. First names are not given, only their initials (including the initials of middle names). The function of the surname of the first author is also taken over by the names of organizations, e.g., World Health Organization. Titles of publications without listed authors, e.g., of encyclopedias are moved forward by the years of publication and arranged alphabetically, excluding possible definite and indefinite articles (in English A, An, The), which are not taken into account in the alphabetical arrangement.
- If a reference exceeds one line, all following lines are aligned through tabs (1.25 cm).
- Titles of publications and sources published in a language other than in English (e.g., sources written in Slovak used in an English-written paper) are translated in square brackets.
- When specifying names of publishing houses, no forms of corporate structures should be indicated (e.g., Sage Publications Ltd.).
Monograph, textbook, dictionary, encyclopedia. DOI or URL is included (when available)
No specified authorship
Knowledge Encyclopedia Human Body! (2017). DK Children.
In text: (Knowledge Encyclopedia Human Body!, 2017)
A single author
Pravdová, H. (2022). From homo ludens to homo medialis: Cultural dimensions of game principles and media. Wolters Kluwer.
In text: (Pravdová, 2022)
At least two, up to twenty authors
Radošinská, J., Točená, Z., & Macák, M. (2022). Synergia odvetví globalizovaného mediálneho priemyslu [Synergy of globalized media industry segments]. Wolters Kluwer.
In text: (Radošinská et al., 2022)
A publication in press
Radošinská, J., Mináriková, J., & Višňovský, J. (in press). Východiská mediálnych a komunikačných štúdií [Outlines of media and communication studies]. University of Ss. Cyril and Methodius.
In text: (Radošinská et al., in press)
A second or other than first edition (specified only if a publication has multiple editions)
Hartley, J. (2002). Communication, cultural and media studies: Key concepts (3rd ed.). Routledge.
In text: (Hartley, 2002)
A conference paper, a chapter in an edited volume, a dictionary entry
Jurišová, V. (2021). Architektúra značky [Brand architecture]. In P. Krajčovič, J. Radošinská, & J. Višňovský (Eds.), Slovník vybraných pojmov z masmediálnej a marketingovej komunikácie [Dictionary of selected terms from mass media and marketing communication] (pp. 10-12). University of Ss. Cyril and Methodius.
Zillmann, D. (2000). The coming of media entertainment. In D. Zillmann, & P. Vorderer (Eds.), Media entertainment: The psychology of its appeal (pp. 1-20). Lawrence Erlbaum.
In text: (Jurišová, 2021)
A web dictionary (no date specified, permanently updated content; the date of accessing the data is needed.
Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Merriam-Webster dictionary. Retrieved June 30, 2023, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/
In text: (Merriam-Webster, n.d.)
A scholarly study in an academic journal (print only, print and digital, digital with or without DOI). Titles of journals are capitalized, in italics (volumes as well).
Deuze, M. (2020). The role of media and mass communication theory in the global pandemic. Communication Today, 11(2), 4-16.
Hudíková, Z., & Pravdová, H. (2022). Reality show as a controversial format of socialisation. Communication Today, 13(2), 24-47.
Radošinská, J., Rusňáková, L., Točená, Z., & Schwarz, M. (2023). The blockbuster biopic Bohemian Rhapsody as an expression of cinema/music synergy. Communication Today, 14(1), 4-20.
In text: (Deuze, 2020)
(Hudíková & Pravdová, 2022)
(Radošinská et al., 2023)
A newspaper/magazine article (online)
Pulver, A. (2023, June 30). Alan Arkin, Oscar winning actor in Little Miss Sunshine, dies aged 89. The Guardian.
In text: (Pulver, 2023)
A newspaper/magazine article (print). Its page range is needed.
Zemko, T. (2023, June 30). Elektrické autá spochybňujeme už len my, nikto iný [We are the only ones left to question electric cars]. Pravda, pp. 8-9.
In text: (Zemko, 2023)
A research report
Newman, N., Fletcher, R., Eddy, K., Robertson, C. T., & Kleis Nielsen, R. (2023). Reuters Institute digital news report 2023. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism. https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/sites/default/files/2023-06/Digital_News_Report_2023.pdf
In text: (Newman et al., 2023)
Šašalová, V. (2023). From homo ludens to homo medialis: Cultural dimensions of game principles and media [Review of the monograph From homo ludens to homo medialis: Cultural dimensions of game principles and media, written by Hana Pravdová, 2022]. Communication Today, 14(1), 210-212.
In text: (Šašalová, 2023)
A graduation thesis
Macák, M. (2023). Vývojové tendencie a znaky priemyslu digitálnych hier [Development tendencies and characteristics of digital games industry] [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Ss. Cyril and Methodius.
In text: (Macák, 2023)
A film, a music video. The production company is specified; multiple producers are separated by semi-colons.
Villeneuve, D. (Director). (2021). Dune [Film]. Legendary Pictures.
In text: (Villeneuve, 2021)
Television broadcasting (linear). The production company is specified; multiple producers are separated by semi-colons.
Sámelová, A. (Director of News and opinions section). (2023, June 30). Správy RTVS [RTVS News] [TV broadcast]; RTVS.
In text: (Sámelová, 2023)
A TV series. The date of releasing the season or its first episode should be declared. The production company is specified; multiple producers are separated by semi-colons.
White, M. (Producer). (2022, October 30). The White Lotus season 2 [TV series]. HBO Entertainment.
In text: (White, 2022)
A specific episode of a TV series. The production company is specified; multiple producers are separated by semi-colons.
Favreau, J. (Writer), & Filoni, D. (Director). (2019, November 12). Chapter 1 (Season 1, Episode 1) [TV series episode]. In J. Favreau, D. Filoni, K. Kennedy, & C. Wilson (Executive Producers), The Mandalorian. Lucasfilm; Golem Creations.
In text: (Favreau & Filoni, 2019)
A musical recording. The production company is specified; multiple producers are separated by semi-colons. The date of the first release of the song should be declared as follows.
May, B. (2018). Who wants to live forever [Song recorded by Queen]. On Bohemian Rhapsody original soundtrack. Universal International Music. (Original work published 1986)
In text: (May, 1986/2018)
A music album. The production company is specified; multiple producers are separated by semi-colons.
BTS. (2014). Dark & wild [Album]. BigHit Entertainment; LOEN Entertainment; Pony Canyon.
In text: (BTS, 2014)
A remastered music album. The production company is specified; multiple producers are separated by semi-colons.
Pink Floyd. (2016). The dark side of the moon (Remastered) [Album]. Pink Floyd Records. (Original work published 1973)
In text: (Pink Floyd, 1973/2016)
A mobile app. The platform where the app is available for download is specified.
Meta. (2023). Facebook (Version 421.0) [Mobile app]. App Store.
In text: (Meta, 2023)
A podcast. The production company is specified; multiple producers are separated by semi-colons.
Blaško, A., Hlavatovič, V., Janščová, K., & Gyuríková, K. (Hosts). (2023, April 28). Piatoček: Chlieb náš každodenný [Special Friday: Our daily bread] [Audio podcast]. Petit Press.
In text: (Blaško et al., 2023)
A videocast. The production company is specified; multiple producers are separated by semi-colons.
Kelce, T., & Kelce, J. (Hosts). (2023, May 22). New Heights Live with Patrick Mahomes, Roger Goodell, Tony Gonzalez, Eric Stonestreet & more [Video podcast]. Jukes. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v4R0C1WhLAA
In text: (Kelce & Kelce, 2023)
A streamed video content. Its publication date is declared.
Pinkfong Baby Shark – Kids’ Songs & Stories. (2016, June 18). Baby Shark Dance | #babyshark Most Viewed Video | Animal Songs | PINKFONG Songs for Children. [Video]. YouTube.
In text: (Pinkfong Baby Shark – Kids’ Songs & Stories, 2016)
A legal act – no additional data on amendments and supplements is needed.
Zákon č. 264/2022 Z. z. o mediálnych službách [Act No. 264/2022 Coll. on media services] (2022).
In text: (Zákon č. 264/2022 Z. z. o mediálnych službách [Act No. 264/2022 Coll. on media services], 2022)
Web content (unspecified, no date, no authorship)
The Internet Movie Database. (n.d.). Most popular movies. https://www.imdb.com/chart/moviemeter/?ref_=nv_mv_mpm
In text: (The Internet Movie Database, n.d.)
Social media content (a photo, a video, etc.)
Messi, L. [@leomessi]. (2022, December 18). Campeones del Mundo!!!!!!! [World Champions!!!!!!!] [Instagram photographs]. Retrieved from
In text: (Messi, 2022)
A publicly available social media post. Only the first 40 words are included.
Facebook [@facebook]. (2022, May 4). “As a Latino in the gaming world, the challenges that we faced every day were obvious. We created the organization to support each other, but quickly realized it could help make the industry a more inclusive and accessible place for [Facebook post]. Retrieved from
In text: (Facebook, 2022)
A blog. Its publication date is declared.
Frade, R. (2023, June 5). Catherine D´Ignazio and Lauren Klein interviewed by Renata Frade: The future of tech feminism in the present with artificial intelligence and storytelling.
In text: (Frade, 2023)
An electronic publication. If it is not available in print, URL where it is published is specified.
Johnson, C. (2019). Online TV. Routledge.
In text: (Johnson, 2019)
An audio book. “Narr.” refers to a narrator. The date of the first release of the book should be declared as follows.
Brontë, C. (2006). Jane Eyre (J. Stevenson, Narr.) [Audiobook]. BBC Audiobooks.
https://www.audible.com/pd/Jane-Eyre-Audiobook/B002V5CWOY?ref=a_ep_FreeLi_c7_product_1_3&pf_rd_p=386dd20b-1f95-4f70-aec4-3c61759376a5&pf_rd_r=XC3CWCX3F0K28JG4FH4D&pageLoadId=kWoJyr0QAm3fCTIH&creativeId=fe89080d-b720-4f55-b9ba-b8875f975b13 (Original work published 1847)
In text: (Brontë, 1847/2006)
A digital game (its hosting platform or version included). No difference between digital games in physical and digital-only distribution.
Naughty Dog. (2022). The last of us part I. (PS5 version) [Digital game].
In text: (Naughty Dog, 2022)
A digital game available online, via mobile apps, social media, etc.
Zynga. (2021). Farmville 3 [Digital game]. https://zynga.social/Fv3FB
In text: (Zynga, 2021)